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Cahokia notched hoes, disciodals and spuds or ritual axes.

  The artifacts in this picture represent one of the best collections of Cahokia Culture artifacts from the area around the Cahokia Mounds State Historic site. The site is located just east of St. Louis, Missouri in Madison and St. Clair Counties in Illinois. These artifacts date to somewhere between A.D. 800 to 1500.
   The rarest artifacts in this picture are the eight ground and polished Spuds located in the center. Spud is the common name given to these artifacts. They are also known as Spatulate Celts or Ritual Axes. The exact purpose for which they were used is unknown. They show no use wear. They may have been hafted and used like a battle axe.
   The sixteen Notched Hoes in this picture are excellent examples of a popular form of digging tool used by the Cahokia people. They are called St. Clair Side-Notched hoes, named after the county on which part of the Cahokia site is located. Most of  these Hoes were made of the dull brown and gray Mill Creek chert from southern Illinois. Only a very few of these Hoes were made of the more colorful kaolin chert also quarried from sites in southern Illinois. At least six of these Hoes are made of Kaolin chert.
   The twelve ground and polished round stones in this pictures are called Discoidals. Discoidals or "Chunky Stones", as they are sometimes called, are usually concave on both faces with rare examples having a central hole like the four in this picture illustrate. These artifacts appear throughout the Mississippian period. Some early explorers witnessed a game in which the Discoidal was rolled and two players threw their six foot long sticks, or tchung-ke as they were called, each hoping their spear would lay closest to the stone when it stopped rolling.